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Build is the term to describe the end-to-end process of compiling, assembling, and linking software. To go from source to binary is to "build the software". Sometimes, just for kicks, the person who manages a large build (ie. many source code files) is called the "buildmeister" -- though, professionally, those folks also handle version control issues and are said to work in "Configuration Management" or "CM".

Building typically involves the steps

make install

there are reasons not to count the "make install" step to the build, but it shall be mentioned here for clarity. Mostly, the automake step is done before bundling and publishing the software so the normal user does not need to do it. There are different files involved into the build process, the following gives an overview about that:

(you)--> --(automake)--> --
                                                     --(configure)--> Makefile --
                                                    /                             \
                           (you)--> --                                --> binary
                                                           (you)--> sourcecode --

You as a developer write the sourcecode, the file and the is transformed by automake to and are transformed by configure to Makefile, while the Makefile and the sourcecode together build the binary. So, if you are asked how to write a Makefile, the best answer is "not at all, better have configure write the Makefile".

See also