Gnuplot is a command-line based plotting tool. It can plot data or math equations in a variety of different formats.
- 1 Plotting
- 2 Settings
- 3 Saving in different formats
- 4 References
To create a graph with gnuplot, you will need a mathematical function or a data file.
vmstat 1 10 | grep -v r > vmstat.txt gnuplot -p -e "plot 'vmstat.txt' \ using 13 title 'CPU user load' with lines, 'vmstat.txt' \ using 14 title 'CPU system load' with lines, 'vmstat.txt' \ using 15 title 'CPU idle time' with lines, 'vmstat.txt' \ using 16 title 'CPU IO wait time' with lines"
The first line collects system data into a file vmstat.txt. The command will run 10 seconds (parameter 10). The second line creates a graph out of your data. Column 13 will be displayed as "CPU user load", column 14 as "CPU system load" and so on. There will be lines connecting the measurement points (parameter "with lines").
You can also plot math functions:
will plot the function x2
Use the 'splot' command for plotting 3d functions:
splot -x**3 -y
plotting multiple equations
You can plot multiple equations on the same graph by seperating the equations with a comma:
plot x**2, x
splot x*y, x**2-y**4
Many settings can be changed, such as the axis ranges and sampling rate. To avoid retyping the plot equation after each change, simple type replot to re-plot the previously inputted equation.
Setting the range
You can use the set command to set the ranges. The following commands set the x range to [0,10], the y range to [2,6] and the z range to [10,100000]:
set xrange [0:10] set yrange [2:6] set zrange [10:100000]
By default the ranges are autoscaled. You can revert them back to autoscaling with:
set autoscale x set autoscale y set autoscale z
If you need one of the axis to be logarithmic use set logscale AXIS. It can be turned off with set nologscale AXIS.
set logscale z set nologscale z
Setting the grid size
In 3d this is done with set isosamples followed by the x and y rates of the sampling. Ex:
set isosamples 50, 50
Increasing the sampling rate enough will degrade performance.
Saving in different formats
Saving the graphs in different formats is done by setting the output and terminal variables.
The default behavior is to show the plot in an X11 window. This is done with:
set output set terminal X11
Postscript files can be printed from the command line with the lpr command.
set output "filename.ps" set terminal postscript replot
Print in color (default is monochrome):
set terminal postscript color
Use solid lines instead of dashed:
set terminal postscript solid
If you want to include the graph in a LaTeX document, you need to save it as an eps file:
set output "filename.eps" set terminal postscript eps
To save the graph as a png image:
set output "filename.png" set terminal png replot
- Gnuplot Homepage
- http://t16web.lanl.gov/Kawano/gnuplot/datafile-e.html - plotting a data file