First Person Shooter released by ID Software in 1996. Revolutionized the FPS genre by having both the game world and the player/monsters as 3D polygons (instead of 2d sprites which was common at that time) and adding lightmaps and real-time light sourcing.
It also spawned a sequel by ID software: Quake 3 Arena
The game engine source code has been made available as open source by ID software. Which allowed many enhanced versions to be developed. Well known is the QuakeForge engine, which adds many visual improvements to the openGL renderer and runs on many platforms. Another relatively new modification is Tenebrae, it modifies the Quake engine to support stencil shadows and per pixel lights (the same methods that are used in the new Doom III engine) to create very realistic shadows.
How to play it in linux
To play the original Quake you need the data files. Those can be used by many of the different modifications of the engine.