This hardly seems complete coverage of
command substitution process substitution
and seems more like a treatment of the various kinds of "expansion" which are not named as such here. -- 4dummies
- what is command substition? What is process substitution?
- substitutes ls by "foo.bar". I call this substitution. Do you call it expansion? Why? --ThorstenStaerk 18:39, May 8, 2011 (UTC)
I take the terminology from the (Gentoo) bash(1) man page, which says, in part:
EXPANSION Expansion is performed on the command line after it has been split into words. There are seven kinds of expansion performed: brace expansion, tilde expansion, parameter and variable expansion, command substitu‐ tion, arithmetic expansion, word splitting, and pathname expansion.
The order of expansions is: brace expansion, tilde expansion, parame‐ ter, variable and arithmetic expansion and command substitution (done in a left-to-right fashion), word splitting, and pathname expansion.
On systems that can support it, there is an additional expansion avail‐ able: process substitution.
From this I take it that the overall category is expansion, and has two that are specifically called substitutions: of commands and processes, and one that's called word splitting. In spite of the above, there is the additional heading HISTORY EXPANSION, like the command "!!"
Command substitution is either of the backtick `` or $() forms.
Thanks to your question, I now actually have a clue about process substitution, which I did not know was even possible. My shell scripts will accordingly become even more arcane and unreadable. Example:
is equivalent to the process substitution
One can also try
sort <(echo 2) <(echo 1)
to combine inputs, though in this case sort would ignore stdin completely because these substitutions are turned into filenames. Try
echo <(echo 1)
and compare to
cat <(echo 1)
The example of "ls *" is usually called "file globbing" or just "globbing", but is documented under the headline "Pathname Expansion", but is not a kind of "substitution".
-- 4dummies 20:21, May 8, 2011 (UTC)